Berberine is an active constituent found in a variety of species of plants. Newer studies have found berberine has biological effects in several pathways in the body, indicating it may be a potential treatment for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is hypothesized as beginning with an accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Berberine also has studies supporting its ability to reduce symptoms associated with NAFLD, as well as showing significant antidiabetic effects and lipid-lowering capability. Historically, berberine has been used for its antimicrobial activity, as berberine is active against a wide range of organisms including bacterial viruses, fungi, helminths, and chlamydia.