Evening primrose oil (EPO) contains essential fatty acids that have several beneficial effects in the body. EPO is a source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) which, when used topically, has been demonstrated to aid in the management of atopic dermatitis. EPO also contains precursors of prostaglandin E1 which, when deficient, can contribute to many female hormone balancing concerns, including PMS symptoms such as depression, irritability, breast pain, and fluid retention. Deficiency of prostaglandin E1 can also contribute to menopausal symptoms including hot flashes. EPO also inhibits leukotriene synthesis, which is an inflammatory mediator and can therefore be used to reduce systemic inflammation in the body.