Omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play a vital role in the healthy development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system in infants and children. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n‑3)] is the most abundant omega‑3 PUFA in the human brain, and it supports the normal development of the brain, eyes, and nerves. Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA, 20:5(n‑3)] is the major precursor for eicosanoid metabolism, and it regulates neuronal and immune processes by influencing gene expression. Numerous human observational and clinical trials support a link between childhood neurodevelopmental and immune disorders with a deficiency of dietary EPA and DHA, as well as omega‑6:omega‑3 PUFA imbalances. Currently, <10% of children meet recommended intakes of EPA+DHA. Therefore, supplementation of DHA as well as EPA is critical to support optimal neurocognitive, neurobehavioural, and immune function throughout childhood.